What was your first foray into exfoliation? Did it involve a tub of crushed-walnut scrub? We, too, once subscribed to the grit-is-good philosophy. But time has told us that sloughing off dead skin doesn't have to, and, for your skin's sake, shouldn't, be a rough experience. Exfoliation is vital to fresh, luminous skin — and luckily, products that facilitate the process have improved considerably over the years.
Perhaps it’s because, as
recently reported, “Companies large and small are racing to serve the growing number of adults with [sensitive] skin.” Whatever the impetus, today’s scrubs wouldn’t dare scratch your face or leave it feeling raw. We’re seeing smart resurfacing molecules that selectively erode only dead surface cells, sparing the healthy skin below, to give a glow sans side effects. Even home peels have gotten more considerate — delivering on promises not to irritate by offsetting acids with generous doses of hydrators and inflammation-quelling extracts. This new bevy of exfoliators are so gentle, they can be used daily (or every other day), without compromising on their effectiveness.
The New York Times
Read on as skin buffs weigh in on all that’s new in the realm of exfoliation.
Over Night Treatments Glycolic acid has long been the mainstay ingredient in exfoliants. Containing the smallest molecule in AHA's, it is derived from sugarcane and is widely acknowledged as the most effective acid. It's exfoliating properties work by increasing cell turnover, evening out skin tone and reducing wrinkles. One downside to be aware of however, glycolic acid is the only acid that makes your skin more sensitive to the sun, so following the use of a it, regular application of spf is strongly advised. Alpha-H's Liquid Gold uses 5% glycolic acid as it's star ingredient. Designed as an overnight treatment to be used no more than 3 times a week, the AHA melts the 'glue' that bind dead skin cells to the skin'a surface, to reveal healthy 'new' cells beneath. By stimulating cellular activity, it accelerates the repair process by lowering the skin's pH from approx. 5.5 to 3. This resurfacing action is why liquid gold helps to diminish acne scars, dark spots, enlarged pores, blackheads, pigmentation, redness and sun damage. A sleep-in liquid peel if you will. Similar in their efficacy is Pixi's Glow Tonic, which boasts a cult following to compete with Alpha-H. Also containing 5% glycolic acid, it also features oxygenating ginseng to improve skin vibrancy and deliver a brightened complexion. It's an excellent starting point for your first foray into the alpha-hydroxy acid family. Alpha-H Liquid Gold, £33.50, available at Look Fantastic
The Latest K-Beauty Buffer While the beauty world has been freaking out over aqua peels, the next big K-beauty star has been quietly gaining steam. Behold the latest in Asian exfoliation: The Dr.G Brightening Peeling Gel, a gommage-type treatment. If you haven't heard of gommage, when rubbed into dry skin, these liquidy gels pill up, capturing what looks like dead cells in their wake. Think bobbles but on your skin. Created by a South Korean dermatologist renowned for his exfoliating facials, the gel buffs away dead skin and hydrates to radiant effect. . According to cosmetic chemist Ginger King, older gommage peels used ingredients made to coat the face and flake off, giving the impression of shedding skin. However, she adds, “it wasn’t so much dead cells you were seeing, but rather the residue of ingredients rolling off the skin’s surface.” But newer versions have been updated from the classic formula with better buffers, such as cellulose (a plant-derived fiber) and polyacrylates. “These soft, spongy materials provide a source of friction to carefully nudge off actual skin cells,” says King. They bolster the exfoliating action with mild fruit enzymes or acids, and top things off with moisturizers and anti-inflammatory botanicals. Dr.G Brightening Peeling Gel, £16.54, available at Amazon
The Non-Acid Peel Chemical peels are now kinder than ever, yet for some, the mere mention of “acid” will forever evoke fear — and SATC flashbacks. Herein lies the appeal of the Exuviance Firm-NG6 Non-Acid Peel. In lieu of acids, it relies on NeoGlucosamine, a patented amino sugar, which enhances cell turnover, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, says King. Its effect is compared to that of glycolic acid, but King argues, “It has more to do with controlling adhesion — preventing dead cells from clinging — than destroying cells, which is why it’s not irritating,” explains cosmetic chemist Ni’Kita Wilson. However, she adds, while glycolic acid works on contact, glucosamine performs more slowly. Peer-reviewed research also suggests that the molecule can “improve hyperpigmentation by inhibiting tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the production of melanin,” adds cosmetic chemist Kelly Dobos. A similar non-patented form of the ingredient, N-acetyl glucosamine, is used in Estée Lauder Idealist Pore Minimizing Skin Refinisher — which some chemists call the original “non-acid peel.” Exuviance Firm-NG6 Non-Acid Peel, £44.42, available at Blooming Way
Multi-Acid Cocktails If a glycolic peel is like a shot — a single potent dose — then the new blended peels are the equivalent of cocktail. The strong stuff mixed with other ingredients to ease the bite. Both get the job done, but as New York dermatologist Jeannette Graf, M.D. explains, “By using multiple low-strength acids together, blended peels can target several issues at once — usually without irritation.” Wise to these perks, skin-care companies are borrowing this in-office technology for home peels. Avon just intensified its famous peel pads by swapping out straight glycolic for a proprietary blend of acids (plus a penetration enhancer) to create the Anew Clinical Advanced Even Texture & Tone Advanced Resurfacing Peel. “The original formula gave professional results,” says Dr. Graf, “so I’d expect a rather strong effect from this updated blend.” To counter could-be side effects, the peel includes hyaluronic acid, honey, aloe, glycerin, and myriad plant extracts. Algenist Genius Ultimate Anti-Aging Bi-Phase Peel positions glycolic and salicylic acids alongside soothing microalgae oil. And Drunk Elephant T.L.C. Framboos Glycolic Night Serum packs the power of a peel into a nightly dose of 12% glycolic acid fused with lactic, tartaric, citric, and salicylic acids — and thwarts stinging and flakes with cactus enzymes and white tea. Avon Anew Clinical Even Texture & Tone Advanced Resurfacing Peel, £15, available at Avon
Nightly Micro-Peel Serums Setting the bar for daily resurfacing serums since its inception in ’09, SkinCeuticals Retexturizing Activator lightly smooths skin with a compound of hydroxyethyl urea and aminosulfonic acid. “The urea portion is a potent humectant that draws moisture in, causing the skin to swell, and allowing for better penetration of the acid, which promotes shedding of dead cells,” explains Wilson. The formula heads off irritation with kombucha (a tea-derived antioxidant) and hydrating hyaluronic acid. When used twice a day, it’s proven to work as well as a daily dose of 20% glycolic acid. Now new micro-peels are giving the classic serum some healthy competition. Kiehl’s Dermatologist Solutions Nightly Refining Micro-Peel Concentrate stars quinoa-husk extract and a supporting cast of fruit acids, phytic acid, and calming cactus extract. It, too, has been shown to be as effective as 20% glycolic, but less irksome. Olay ProX Nightly Purifying Micro-Peel combines glycolic, lactic, and citric acids with healing pro-vitamin B5. While formulary specifics are proprietary, “the pH of a micro-peel is likely to be higher than a traditional home peel, and the level of acids lower, so they’re gentler and cause a more gradual removal of dead skin cells,” says Wilson. This is why they’re made to be worn overnight: “They need that extended contact time to get the same effect as a regular peel,” says cosmetic chemist Jim Hammer. New York City dermatologist Ellen Marmur, M.D., warns against combining micro-peels with other acids or enzymes though, as “doubling up can multiply the chemical exfoliation and backfire on your skin.” Instead, top your micro-peel with a simple moisturizer, like Pond's Cold Cream. SkinCeuticals Retexturizing Activator, £82.95, available at SkinCeuticals.
Resurfacing Peptides and Probiotics Don’t call it a fad: The bacteria-in-skin-care movement has been growing steadily for nearly a decade, and lately even more potential benefits are coming to light. The latest: exfoliation via fermentation. As New York City dermatologist Whitney Bowe, M.D. explains, “Many fermented ingredients are acidic, which means they can dissolve dead skin cells.” Acidity also helps repair the skin barrier, she adds, which can lead to an overall boost in hydration and reduction in irritation. Teeming with deep-cleansing yogurt peptides and willow-bark extract, Tata Harper’s Purifying Mask aims to root out pollutants from pores, clarifying skin and shutting down inflammation. Intriguing stuff, for sure, but we should note: Some remain skeptical of topical probiotics. “The complications of using live cultures in cosmetics are numerous, including their ability to survive manufacturing conditions and storage,” notes Cosmetic chemist Kelly Dobos. “While conceptually, working with good microbes that cover our skin makes sense, the jury is still out on whether or not this approach has real benefits.” Tata Harper Purifying Mask, £58, available at Cult Beauty
Natural Enzymes Apples and rice are sprouting up in many modern exfoliators, as “both contain low levels of protease, an enzyme that provides slow, gentle exfoliation,” says Hammer. Since it’s weaker than its ubiquitous cousins culled from pineapple and papaya, it’s typically combined with other buffers. Juara Enzyme Radiance Scrub blends green-apple enzyme with bamboo and jojoba beads into a superfine silt. While Suki Bio-Active Purifying Face Serum mixes apple enzymes and salicylic acid to target dullness and clogged pores. In the cultish cleansing powders from Tatcha, Josie Maran, Amarte, and Dermalogica, rice enzymes are a hero ingredient, but get an assist from mild fruit extracts and natural grains, like argan-shell powder and cornstarch. These powders are soft and silky, “and you can change their texture by adding more or less water to mollify or intensify their buffing effect,” notes Alicia Yoon of Peach & Lily. Another enzyme of the moment, hydrolyzed roe, is released by baby salmon as they break free from their eggs (found in Restorsea products, it’s patented as Aquabeautine XL). “It has two components: a protein and an exfoliant,” explains Joely Kaufman, M.D. When applied to skin, “the protein attaches itself to dead cells and acts as a target for the exfoliant. When the dead cells are gone, the exfoliant stops working.” While Dr. Kaufman likes roe as an alternative to traditional chemical sloughers, like retinol or AHAs, she also recommends using it with them to heighten their benefits: “Many times, I have patients use the hydrolyzed roe twice a day and then add in a retinoid once a week,” she says. Her new fave from the line is the Revitalizing Scalp Treatment, which she uses off-the-body to even out chest skin and soften rough patches on the backs of her arms. Juara Radiance Enzyme Scrub, £38, available at Look Fantastic Want more like this? Meet The Pharmacist Putting Bacteria In Your Skincare Regime Is It Time To Rethink The Acids In Our Skincare? Everything You Need To Know About Skin Peeling Products